AI Readings


Artificial Intelligence in Teaching & Learning

a partially curated bibliography and resource page for UofT community members

last updated Feb 21. 2023, 11:20 a.m.

Document Sections:  

  • U of T -specific resources
  • Must Reads / Must Watch
  • Other Curated Bibliographies AI in T&L 
  • Other Articles 
    • Other Readings related to Teaching & Learning 
    • Copyright questions 
    • Opinion and Business pieces 
    • General Items  
  • Events
  • Tools 
    • Tools and their functionality 
    • Readings from Companies and Suppliers
  • What does Chat GPT say about ownership? – addendum to the section on copyright 


New icon  U of T -specific Resources

The Office of the Vice-Provost, Innovations in Undergraduate Education, has issued a resource page on ChatGPT and generative AI in the classroom. This resource includes a FAQ section that addresses a variety of questions, including the use of AI-detectors such as GPTZero.

University of Toronto Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation Resource: Generative Artificial Intelligence in the Classroom

New icon  AI update February 2023 – A description of AI technology and how it is likely to manifest in common applications in the coming months.
A video by Prof. Susan McCahan, Vice-Provost. 2023-02-18 (must have a UTORid to watch)

A Demonstration of Several AI Systems (Video – runtime: 11:20 – requires UTORid to view)
Presented by Prof. Susan McCahan, Vice-Provost, Innovations in Undergraduate Education,
and Vice-Provost, Academic Programs, the University of Toronto


Must Reads: AI in Teaching & Learning

Videos & Podcasts Worth Watching/Hearing


Other Curated Bibliographies AI in Teaching & Learning


Other AI in Teaching & Learning Readings 

Copyright questions 

In addition to The Verge article above: 

What does ChatGPT say about ownership?   
We asked ChatGPT this question.  Its response is given at the end of this document. 

Opinion and Business pieces 
We have added a new section with relevant readings from companies and suppliers in the tools section below.


 More General Items


Events of Note

New icon Upcoming SRI@UofT Seminars explore the societal implications of AI systems (starts January 18)

Educause QuickTalk | GPT: The Generative AI Revolution: (January 30, 2023 – recording available)


ATTENTION: We, and others, have noted that a number of “look alike” sites and apps have arisen recently. If you are trying to access the real OpenAI ChatGPT 3.5, please use this link: – OpenAI does not make an app for mobile devices, despite what you may be seeing on the Internet.

Tools and their functionality 

This list is changing daily (see for rankings of 134 writing assistant systems).   

    • Chat GPT 3.5 – a product from OpenAI.  It is designed for chatting, but will also produce longer texts, poems, etc.  It works best on content that is either “common knowledge” (e.g., first year content) or areas that have received lots of discussion online (e.g., climate change).  Currently free (release Nov. 2022), but ultimately may become a commercial product. (
    • Jasper – A commercial product that is advertising heavily designed for writing ad copy, blogs, and other content. Although primarily aimed at sales and marketing, it also has the capability of “improving” a piece of writing, can create or improve long form text (it advertises writing of books), and operates in multiple languages, and does plagiarism and grammar checks.  It is one more frequently reviewed products in this space. ( ) Starts at $40/mth, or $80/mth (Boss mode). 
    • Writesonic – “Writesonic’s GPT-3 language model deploys powerful AI to generate blog posts, landing pages, adverts, product descriptions, and emails, so it’s a top choice if you need a versatile writing tool.” ( Works in multiple languages.  Also advertises a ChatSonic version (“like Chat GPT, but with superpowers”).  ( )  About $15/mth for an individual. 
    • Article Forge – Advertises that it “writes entire 1,500+ word articles automatically” in about 60 seconds.  Many of the others will write long format also, but this tool seems to be particularly designed for this.  Also does plagiarism checking.  ( starts at $30/mth. 
    • WordAI – Advertises that their tool is best at improving existing content.  This tool is a favorite (according to techradar) of people in tech.  It is more of a rewriting tool than a content creation tool. “This tool can totally restructure your sentences and paragraphs to make them easier and more pleasing to read, and WordAI will automatically add keywords, make your writing more varied and fix spelling and grammar mistakes. It can use AI to improve clarity, and it’ll avoid duplicated content and create up to 1,000 rewrites per article.” ( ( )  $60/mth or $30/mth for an annual license. 
    • AI Writer – Like many of these tools, AI Writer is geared toward the production of web content and search engine optimization (SEO).  It is largely designed for sales and marketing. Unlike many of the other tools, AI Writer provides a list of sources and citations. Also does text rewording, although partly this is for SEO optimization, not just readability.  ( ) $30/mth. 
    • Ink – A relatively new product built on GPT-3, it is designed for expanding text you have written, rewriting/editing text, and generating text.  Like some other tools, it will give you multiple variations to choose from for each prompt.  It also includes grammar support and a readability score, so if you do your own writing/editing it shows you how the readability changes. ( )  $60/mth or $45/mth for an annual license. 
    • Moonbeam – This tool has been mentioned in recent Inside Higher Ed articles on AI probably because pricing and because it is trained to write essays makes it attractive for students. ( ) $0 up to 30k words/mth, $20/mth for pro version. 
    • Fermat – AI on a collaborative canvas – a company out of Barcelona –


    • Jill Watson – Virtual AI Teaching Assistant Project from Georgia Tech U:  

    • While many of these are developed for use by sales, marketing and online content creators, there are others (e.g., SciNote, Sembly) specifically designed for a specific type of writing (e.g., FDA and other regulatory submissions/reporting, or meeting minutes from transcripts).  Financial analysis companies, for example, are using systems like AlphaSense that take natural language queries to identify relevant sources of information. One type that may find substantial traction in academia is Elicit, Iris – “Elicit is a research assistant using language models like GPT-3 to automate parts of researchers’ workflows. Currently, the main workflow in Elicit is Literature Review.” ( ).  Iris.AI claims similar functionality (

It is worth noting that Microsoft etc. are also entering this space and our staff can, and probably should, be using more of the Microsoft “power tools” like Power BI and Automate.  We could probably use Automate to replace or add to some of the homegrown systems we have such as academic offense tracking, or other protocol-based processes. They also have an AI Builder tool.  (

Readings from Companies and Suppliers



What does ChatGPT say about ownership? 

Query:  Who owns the copyright for writing generated by ChatGPT 

ChatGPT’s Answer: 

GPT, or Generative Pre-trained Transformer, is an artificial intelligence model developed by OpenAI for generating text. As the creator of the GPT model, OpenAI owns the copyright for the software and any text that is generated using the model. 

However, the text that is generated using the GPT model is created automatically by the model, and as such, it may not be eligible for copyright protection under copyright law. In general, copyright protection is only granted to original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible form, such as a book or a document. Automatically generated text may not meet the threshold of originality required for copyright protection. 

If you want to use text generated by the GPT model for any purpose, you should first obtain permission from OpenAI. It is also important to note that even if the text generated by the GPT model is not eligible for copyright protection, it may still be protected by other legal rights such as trade secret or patent law.